تعرف على أول خلفاء الدولة العباسية

تعرف على أول خلفاء الدولة العباسية

تعرف على أول خلفاء الدولة العباسية، الدولة العباسية هي الدولة التي قامت بعد سقوط الدولة الأموية، والدولة العباسية منسوبة إلى أسرة عم الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم العباس بن عبد المطلب رضى الله عنه، وسنتعرف في هذا الموضوع على نشأة الدولة العباسية، كما سنتعرف على أول خلفاء الدولة العباسية، تابعونا في السطور التالية.

محتويات المقالة

نشأة الدولة العباسية

قامت الدولة العباسية على يد أسرة عم الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم العباس بن عبدالمطلب، في العام 750 ميلادية، وقادت الأسرة العباسية الثورة ضد الأمويين، وجهزت الجيوش ضدهم، وانتصرت عليهم، وذلك في عهد مروان بن محمد آخر الخلفاء الأمويين، والذي هرب إلى مصر، ولقى حتفه هناك.

مساحة الدولة العباسية

وبلغت مساحة الدولة العباسية 10,000,000كم²، وبلغ عدد سكانها 50,000,000 مليون نسمة، وعملتها الرئيسية هي الدينار العباسي، وفي عام 1517م  سقطت الدولة العباسية على يد المغول التتار.

مدة قيام الدولة العباسية

استمرت الدولة العباسية في حكم العالم الإسلامي لمدة خمس قرون، واتسعت رقعة الدول التي تحكمها من الصين شرقًا، حتى المغرب العربي غربًا، ولم تخرج عن حكم الدولة العباسية سوى الأندلس التي وصل إليها عبدالرحمن بن معاوية الملقب بصقر قريش، وأسس دولة أموية لا تعترف بالدولة العباسية.

أول خليفة عباسي

سنتعرف في السطور التالية عن أول خليفة تولى حكم الدولة العباسية وهو:

الخليفة الأول أبو العباس السفاح

أبو العباس هو أول خلفاء الدولة العباسية، وحرص في بداية حكمه بعد الثورة على الأمويين على قتل جميع الأسرة الأموية، ولم يفلت منه سوى أمير واحد واستقل بالأندلس وأسس فيها دولة أموية لا تعترف بالدولة العباسية، استمر أبو العباس في الحكم قرابة الأربع سنوات، عمل فيهم على تأسيس عاصمة مؤقتة في الأنبار لتكون مقرًا له.

هل كان الخليفة الأول أبو العباس سفاحًا؟

هذا الرأي فيه اختلاف بين المؤرخين، فهناك من يرى تفسير قتله للأسرة الأموية بهذه البشاعة والشدة، أن ظروف الثورة على الأموية هي من أجبرت على التخلص منهم حتى لا يعيقه أحد في تأسيس الدولة الأموية، وهناك من يرى أن كلمة سفاح التي لقب بها يقصد بها أنه يسفح الماء والكرم والعطاء.

أسماء خلفاء الدولة العباسية في العصر الأول

الدولة العباسية تنقسم إلى عصرين، العصر الأول، والعصر الثاني، وخلفاء الدولة العباسية في العصر الأول هم كالآتي:

 أبو العباس السفّاح: فترة الحكم من 749 إلى 754م.

أبو جعفر المنصور: فترة الحكم من 754 إلى 775م.

المهدي: فترة الحكم من 775 إلى 785م.

الهادي: فترة الحكم من 785 إلى 786م.

هارون الرشيد: فترة الحكم من 786 إلى 809م.

الأمين: فترة الحكم 809 من 813م.

المأمون: فترة الحكم 813 إلى 819م.

المعتصم بالله: فترة الحكم من 819 إلى 843م.

الواثق بالله: فترة الحكم من 843 إلى847م.

أسماء خلفاء الدولة العباسية في العصر الثاني

المتوكل على الله جعفر بن المعتصم 847 – 861م

المنتصر بالله محمد بن المتوكّل 861 – 862م

المستعين بالله أحمد بن المعتصم 862 – 866م

المعتز بالله محمد أبو عبد الله بن المتوكّل 866 – 869م

المهتدي بالله محمد بن الواثق بن المعتصم 869 – 870م

المعتمد على الله أحمد بن المتوكّل بن المعتصم 870 – 792م

المعتضد بالله أحمد بن الموفق طلحة بن المتوكّل 892 – 902م

المكتفي بالله أبو محمد على بن المعتضد 902 – 908م

المقتدر بالله أبو الفضل جعفر بن محمد 908 – 932م

القاهر بالله أبو منصور محمد بن المعتضد 932 – 934م

الراضي بالله أبو العباس محمد بن المقتدر بن المعتضد 934 – 941م

المتقي لله أبو إسحاق إبراهيم بن المقتدر 941 – 945م

المستكفي بالله أبو القاسم عبد الله بن المكتفي 945 – 946م

أسباب قيام الدولة العباسية

الدولة العباسية نتيجة للأسباب الآتية:

_ضعف الدولة الأموية بعد وفاة هشام بن عبدالملك

_اندلاع الثورات والفتن الداخلية، فضلًا عن الانقسامات الداخلية التي أدت إلى قيام الحروب الداخلية.

_ تردي الوضع الاقتصادي، وضعف الميزانية العامة للدولة، وظهور الأحزاب الدينية والحركات السياسية التي أحدثت حالة من الفوضى، والانقسامات الداخلية في الدولة الأموية.

_وفاة محمد بن علي بن عبد الله بن عباس وابنه إبراهيم الذي سجن على يد الأموي مروان بن محمد في حران، يعد سبب رئيسي لضعف الدولة الأموية والثورة عليها.

سبب سقوط الدولة العباسية

من أسباب سقوط الدولة العباسية، نقمة القادة الفرس، ووصول حكام ليسوا من العرب إلى الحكم، بالإضافة إلى تدنى الوضع الاقتصادي، بالإضافة إلى تعدد المزاهب والديانات في الدولة، وانتشار الدويلات والممالك، فضلًا عن الغزو التتاري المغولي الذي أنهى عن الدولة العباسية.

إقرأ أيضًا:

علامات تدل على وجود مقبرة فرعونية أثناء الحفر

من هو السلطان سليم الأول

من الذي أدخل الصفر في الجبر

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