كم عدد خلفاء الدولة الأموية وترتيبهم

كم عدد خلفاء الدولة الأموية وترتيبهم

كم عدد خلفاء الدولة الأموية وترتيبهم، الدولة الأموية من الدول التي حكمت العالم لفترات طويلة، وبالتحديد في الفترة الواقعة بين ستمائة وواحد وستون إلى سبعمائة وخمسون ميلادي، تأسست الدولة الأموية بعد وفاة رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- وبعد انتهاء خلافة الخلفاء الراشدين، والتي انتهت بوفاة سيدنا علي رضى الله عنه، أصل الدولة الأموية يعود إلى بني أمية، وبالتحديد إلى معاوية بن سفيان، وحكم الدولة الأموية العديد من الخلفاء، وفي هذا الموضوع سوف نتعرف على عدد الخلفاء وترتيبهم، تابعونا في السطور التالية.

محتويات المقالة

قيام الدولة الأموية

تأسست الدولة الأموية على يد معاوية بن أبي سفيان، عام 41 للهجري وسمُّي بعام الجماعة، وتنازل الحسن بن علي رضى الله عنهما عن الخلافة لمعاوية بن أبي سفيان منعًا للفتنة وحقنًا للدماء، تلك الفتنة التي كادت أن تُنهي الدولة الإسلامية.

الفتنة بدأت في أواسط عهد خلافة سيدنا عثمان بن عفان، أدت هذه الفتنة إلى مقتل سيدنا عثمان بن عفان، استمرت هذه الفتنة إلى عهد علي بن أبي طالب كرم الله وجهه، وقتل سيدنا علي بن أبي طالب على يد أحد الخوارج، فبايع أهل العراق الحسن بن علي بن أبي طالب، فيما قرر أهل الشام مبايعة الوالي عليهم منذ عهد عمر بن الخطاب رضى الله عنه وهو معاوية بن أبي سفيان، وحينها قرر معاوية بن أبي سفيان حشد الجيوش واتجه إلى الحسن بن علي بن أبي طالب، حينها قرر الحسن بن علي بن أبي طالب، رفض القتال ودرء الفتن، وحقنًا للدماء، عرض على معاوية بن أبي سفيان الصلح، وتنازل له عن الخلافة.

قد يهمك: أسماء الخلفاء العباسيين بالترتيب

خلفاء الدولة الأموية وترتيبهم

الدولة الأموية تأسست على يد معاوية بن أبي سفيان، وترأس الدولة الأموية العديد من الخلفاء، حتى سقطت الدولة الأموية في دمشق وبدأت معها مطاردة الأمويين، وخلفاء الدولة الأموية هم:

معاوية بن أبي سفيان.

يزيد بن معاوية.

معاوية بن يزيد.

مروان بن الحكم.

عبد الملك بن مروان.

الوليد بن عبد الملك.

سليمان بن عبد الملك.

عمر بن عبد العزيز.

يزيد بن عبد الملك.

هشام بن عبد الملك.

الوليد بن يزيد بن عبد الملك.

يزيد بن الوليد بن عبد الملك.

ابراهيم بن الوليد بن عبد الملك.

مروان بن محمد بن مروان بن الحكم.

من هو مؤسس الدولة الأموية

مؤسس الدولة الأموية هو معاوية بن أبي سفيان، وأسس الدولة بعد تنازل الحسن بن علي رضي الله عنهم له عن الخلافة، وفي عهده قام باستكمال الفتوحات الإسلامية فقام بفتح بلاد السند و جزيره رودس وفي عام 668 ميلادية قام بفتح القسطنطينية عن طريق البر والبحر ولكنه فشل في ذلك أول مرة ولكن تم فتحها عندما أرسل عقبة بن نافع بعشرة ألاف جندي لفتحها مرة أخرى، أهم ما يميز معاوية الذكاء والفطنة.

أسباب سقوط الدولة الأموية

سقطت الدولة الأموية في الأندلس، وذلك لأسباب عديدة منها:

_اتساع رقعة الدولة الأموية احتاج إلى حكماء أقوياء قاردين على التحكم في زمام الأمور، لكن العكس هو ما حدث ووصل إلى الحكم حكماء ضعفاء الأمر الذى أدى إلى انهيار الدولة الأموية، وسقوطها.

_ انهيار اقتصاد الدولة الأموية، وحرمان الموالي من الامتيازات الاقتصادية، جعلتهم عرضة للاضطرابات وثورانهم.

_توالث الثورات والخروج عن الحكم، مثل ثورة الخوارج، وثورة الضحاك بن قيس الشيباني، وثورة أبي حمزة الخارجي. ثورة الشيعة. ثورة عبدالله بن الزبير. ثورة عبدالرحمن بن الأشعث. ثورة يزيد بن المهلب.

_الصراعات الداخلية، بين أربع جماعات مختلفة، وهم:

وهم أنصار بني أمية: وهم من السنة.

أنصار العلويين؛ وهم شيعة.

العباسيون في أواخر عهد الدولة.

الخوارج.

وبعد سقوط الدولة الأموية قامت الدولة العباسية.

معلومات قد تهمك:

قصة اتحاد الإمارات للأطفال

تعرف على أول من اكتشف اتجاه القبلة للصلاة

معلومات عن صناعة الفخار في البحرين

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