معلومات عن الدولة الأموية.. ملخص النشأة حتى السقوط

معلومات عن الدولة الأموية.. ملخص النشأة حتى السقوط

معلومات عن الدولة الأموية، ملخص النشأة حتى السقوط، في هذا الموضوع سوف نعرض عليكم ملخص عن قيام وتأسيس الدولة الأموية وأبرز الخلفاء الذين حكموا الدولة الأموية، كما سنتعرف على أسباب السقوط، وفي أي عهد من الخلفاء سقطت الدولة الأموية، وتعد الدولة الأموية، هي أول دولة إسلامية تعتمد نظام الوراثة في تقليد مناصب الحكم، وقامت الدولة الأموية بعد انتهاء الخلافة الراشدة بموت سيدنا علي بن أبي طالب رخضى الله عنه، وفي السطور القادمة سوف نتعرف على ملخص قيام الدولة الأموية.

محتويات المقالة

من هو مؤسس الدولة الأموية

في البداية لابد من التعرف على مؤسس الدولة الأموية، تأسست الدولة الأموية على يد معاوية بن أبي سفيان، بعد تنازل الإمام الحسن بن علي رضى الله عنهم أجمعين عن الحكم لصالح معاوية بن أبي سفيان رضى الله عنه، منعًا للفتنة، وحقنًا للدماء، وخوفًا على المسلمين من الإنقسامات والفتن، وذلك في عام 41هـ، وهو العام الذي عرف بعام الجماعة، حينما دخل معاوية بن أبي سفيان الكوفة بايعه أبناء الإمام علي رضى الله عنهم وكافة المسلمين على الحكم، وكانت هذه المبايعة بشرة خير للصلح والجماعة بين المسلمين، وحقنًا للدماء.

تعرف على: أسماء الخلفاء العباسيين بالترتيب

من هو أول خلفاء الدولة الأموية

بعد تنازل الإمام الحسن بن علي رضى الله عنهم أجمعين عن الحكم لصالح معاوية بن أبي سفيان رضى الله عنه، عمل معاوية بن أبي سفيان على تأسيس الدولة الأموية، ويعد معاوية هو أول خلفاء الدولة الأموية، وكانت له خبرة في شئون الحكم حيث كان واليًا على الشام لمدة عشرين عامًا اكتسب فيهم من الخبرة ما جعلته مؤهل لتأسيس الدولة الأموية، التي شهد العالم الإسلامي في عصرها توسعات، وفتوحات عظيمة.

ما هو عدد خلفاء الدولة الأموية

حكم الدولة الأموية العديد من الخلفاء الذين عملوا على توسيع رقعة الدولة الإسلامية، وتعزيز الفتوحات، وتأمين حدودها لمنع أي غزوات تحدث على العالم الإسلامي، وبلغ عدد خلفاء الدولة الأموية أربع عشرة خليفة، وهم:

معاوية بن أبي سفيان الخليفة المؤسس للدولة الأموية.

ويزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان.

معاوية بن يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان.

مروان بن الحكم بن أبي العاص بن أمية.

عبد الملك بن مروان بن الحكم.

الوليد بن عبد الملك بن مروان بن الحكم.

سليمان بن عبد الملك بن مروان بن الحكم.

عمر بن عبد العزيز بن مروان بن الحكم.

يزيد بن عبد الملك بن مروان بن الحكم.

هشام بن عبد الملك بن مروان بن الحكم.

الوليد بن يزيد بن عبد الملك بن مروان بن الحكم.

يزيد بن الوليد بن عبد الملك بن مروان.

إبراهيم بن الوليد بن عبد الملك بن مروان.

مروان بن محمد بن مروان بن الحكم.

من هو آخر خلفاء الدولة الأموية

يعد مروان بن محمد بن مروان بن الحكم، هو آخر خلفاء الدولة الأموية، وفي عهده سقطت الدولة الأموية بعد اندلاع الثورة العباسية التي قام بها أبو العباس السفاح، حكم مروان في الفترة من 744م حتّى 750م، وهُزِم أمام العباسيين في معركة الزاب الكبرى عام 750م، ولاحق أبو العباس السفاح أفراد البيت الأُموي وقتلهم، إلّا أنّ عبد الرحمن وهو أحد الناجين قد هرب وعيّن نفسه سنة 756م كحاكم مسلم في إسبانيا، وقام بتأسيس سلالة الأُمويين في قرطبة.

أسباب سقوط الدولة الأموية

الخليفة الأموي هشام بن عبدالملك، الذي يعد أقوى خليفة أموي حكم البلاد وفي عهده اتسعت رقعة العالم الإسلامي، وبعد وفاته تولى الحكم حكماء ضعفاء أضاعوا الدولة الأموية بغرقهم في ملذات الدنيا وبحر الشهوات، وانهار اقتصاد الدولة الأموية، ولم يستطيع هؤلاء الحكماء مواجهة الثورات التي اندلعت في قلب الدولة الأموية، بالإضافة إلى الخلافات التي وقعت بين حكام الدولة الأموية وصراع الوصول إلى الحكم، كلها أسباب أدت إلى سقوط الدولة الأموية على يد العباسيين سنة 132 هجريًا في معركة الزاب الشهيرة، وبعد ذلك تأسست الدولة العباسية على يد أبو العباس السفاح.

إقرأ أيضًا:

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