كيف يتعامل الهنود مع البقر

كيف يتعامل الهنود مع البقر

تعتبر الهندوسية من أكثر الديانات في الهند انتشارا، وهي الديانة الأكبر بنسبة 79.8% حيث تحتل المتربة الأولى من حيث عدد التابعين لها، كما تضم الديانة الهندوسية العديد من الجماعات، ولكل مجموعة شكل خاص من العبادة.

ومع ذلك يربط الهندوس العديد من الحيوانات بآلهة مختلفة ويعتبرونها مقدسة، مثل الفيل والنمر وحتى الجرذ لكن ليس بمقدار قديسة البقرة فلماذا؟

محتويات المقالة

الديانة الهندوسية تعد من أقدم الأديان الموجودة في الهند، كما أنهم يفرضون سيطرتهم على كل مناحي الحياة الاقتصادية والسياسية، وذلك منذ استقلال الهند عن بريطانيا.

وهم مقسمون أيضا إلى ثلاثة أقسام:

  • أتباع الإله فيشنا بأشكاله المختلفة.
  • أتباع الإله شيفا.
  • وأتباع الإله شاكتي.
امرأة هندوسية تتعبد وتقيم شعائر دينها

كيف يعبد الهندوس البقر؟

  • ينظر الهندوس إلى البقرة على أنها مخلوق كريم وسهل الانقياد، تعطي أكثر مما تأحذ، فهي تنتج خمسة أشياء مقابل الحبوب والمرعى: الحليب والجبن والزبدة، والبول والروث، تؤكل الثلاثة الأولى وتستخدم في عبادة الآلهة الهندوسية، في حين يمكن استخدام الأخيرين في الطقوس والشعائر الدينية أو حرقهما للوقود، حيث تتستخدم فضلات الحيوان كمصدر للطاقة في العديد من دول العالم كوقود للطهي.
  • ويقال أن الهند مرت بفترة من الجفاف والمجاعات، فاختاروا البقرة رمزا للحياة والنماء يجب حمايته وتبجيله، ولكي يجعلوا الناس يحافظون عليها، أضفوا عليها طابع القديسة حتى تبقى، فلا تقتل ولا تهان ويستفاد منها نتيجة لذلك.

ماذا تمثل البقرة في الحضارة المصرية القديمة؟

  • ويقال أن سبب عبادة الهندوس للبقر ناتجة من تأثرهم بالفراعنة، فإن الفراعنة تأثر بهم اليهود، واليهود تأثر بهم الهندوس، ففي فترة كان الفراعنة يعبدون البقر، وعندما سافر بنو إسرائيل مع موسى عليه السلام اتخذ السامري لهم عجلا جسدا له خوار من علامات تدل على أثر الرسول، فقالوا هذا الهكم واله موسى فنسى، إلى باقي القصة المعروفة.
  • وذلك أن الفراعنة كانوا يعبدون عجلا يسمى أبيس، وإلى الآن في مصر هناك معبد بنفس الإسم يحتوي على مجموعة كبيرة من الأصنام لهذا العجل في صورة بقر.
1280px-Faraón_ante_Apis_(British_Museum)
تمثال أبيس – مصر القديمة

إلى ماذا ترمز البقرة؟

  • قديما كان العالم يلجأ إلى تفسير الظواهر الطبيعية من حوله بطرق مختلفة، مثل البرق والمطر إلى آخره من مجمل التغيرات والأحداث التي تنشأ على الكرة الأرضية، ويتخذ منها البشر رموزا على حسب قوتها تبجيلا وعبادة، ما كان يسمى بالعبادات الطوطمية، وأي شئ يعحبهم يتخذون له تمثالا.
  • فالقضية نابعة من توجهات شتى غير معروفة، لكن السبب قد يرجع إلى أن الهنود القدماء حصروا معبوداتهم المتفرقة في ثلاثة أشياء، مصدر الرعب والقوة في الحيوانات مثل الأسد والأفعي، ومصدر النفع يمثله البقرة، إلخ.
  • ولم يكن الوضع هكذا دائما فكانت الأبقار تذبح قربانا للآلهة، لكن حتى ذلك الحين كانت الأبقار المنتجة للحليب تعتبر محظورة، على الأرجح لأن الحليب كان ثمينا للغاية كمصدر للغذاء، ومع صعود بعض الديانات العالمية مثل البوذية توقف الهندوس عن أكل اللحوم، وبعد فترة وجيزة تم تصوير كريشنا أحد الآلهة الهندوسية الثلاثة على أنه يتجول مع الأبقار، كتمثيل مجرد في سياق الأدب والفنون.
البقرة والهندوس سيدة هندوسية تقيم شعائرها من خلال وقوفها بجانب بقرة

عقوبة ذبح البقر في الهند

  • وعندما وصل رئيس وزراء الهند ناريندرا مودي إلى السلطة في عام 2014 على رأس حزب بهاراتيا جاناتا الهندوسي وهو الحزب الحاكم الحالي لجمهورية الهند، تعرض لانتقادات لكونه لم يتخذ موقفا من الفوضى والقتل الموسع للأبقار.
  • وعن الأحداث الأخيرة الجارية في الهند نستطيع أن نفهم الصورة وراء العقوبات القانونية أو الأفعال المتطرفة من قبل العصابات المختلفة، مثل مجموعات حراسة البقر لحماية المعتقدات الدينية في البلاد.

مظاهر العبادة والاحتفال عند الهندوس 

  • مهرجان (Gopastami): وهو مهرجان أو يوم زينة يقام في التاسع عشر من نوفمبر احتفالا بالأبقار حيث يتم تقليدها جيمعا بالزهور.
  • وفي سياق الفن والأدب غالبًا ما يتم تصور البقرة في شكل مزين بالورود كعلامة على الاحترام والتقدير.
Gopashtami_Gau_Pooja
مهرجان Gopastami – مراسم احتفال – احتفال الإله كريشنا – احتفال البقر

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