من هو اول من اخترع الكتابة

من هو اول من اخترع الكتابة

كانت الكتابة من أكثر الوسائل الفعالة لنقل تاريخ الحضارات القديمة، والدلائل على العصور السابقة وما حصل بها من أحداث، وتُعد الكتابة من أولى المهارات التي طورها الإنسان؛ وذلك بدلالة لوحات الكهوف التي رسمها الإنسان منذ عشرات آلاف السنين، ويُعتقد أن اللغة عمومًا بدأت بالكتابة، ومن ثم تطورت اللغة المنطوقة، ومرّت الكتابة في مراحل كثيرة خلال عصور متعددة، وحضارات متنوعة وزاهرة في الثقافات المختلفة حتى أصبحت كما نعرفها الآن، بدءًا من الصور، والرسومات، وصولًا للأبجدية، في هذا المقال سنوضح لكم من هو اول من اخترع الكتابة.

محتويات المقالة

في أي عصر ظهرت الكتابة

  • ظهرت الكتابة لأول مرة قبل الميلاد في بلاد ما بين النهرين في عام 2900 قبل الميلاد.
  • ومن ثم في مصر، ومن بعدها في الصين حتى وصلت أمريكا الوسطى، وكان لكل منها مميزات وخصائص تميّزها عن غيرها.

الكتابة المسمارية

ظهرت الكتابة لأول مرة في بلاد ما بين النهرين منذ عام 2900 قبل الميلاد.

وعُرفت بالكتابة المسمارية، ولها مجموعة من الخصائص والمميزات، وهي كما يأتي:

  • بدأت الكتابة المسمارية بالنقش على الطين الرطب، وذلك باستخدام قلم القصب؛ لقلة تكلفته وتوافره.
  • فكانت مجرد صور ورسومات في الطين، ولا يُمكن تمييزها.
  • تم استبدال الصور، والرسومات بعلامات على شكل أسافين؛ تم تشكيلها من خلال ضغط طرف القصب.
  • أو أي عصا خشبية على سطح لوح طيني.

  • استمرت هذه الكتابة لمدة 600 عام، وخلال هذه الفترة أصبحت الموز تقرأ من اليسار إلى اليمين في خطوط أفقية.
  • بعد أن كانت تقرأ من الأعلى للأسفل.
  • عندما سيطر الأكاديون على سومر تم الدمج بين الكتابة المسمارية، واللغة الأكدية.
  • كانت الكتابة المسمارية لغة التعلم واستمرت حتى عام 200 قبل الميلاد على الأقل، واستمرت هذه الكتابة لما يقارب 3 قرون.

الكتابة الهيروغليفية

ظهرت الكتابة الهيروغليفية، في مصر في عام 3200 قبل الميلاد تقريبًا، ولها الخصائص والمميزات التالية:

  • أطلق عليها اليونانيون اسم “الكتابة المقدسة”، وذلك لشدّة أناقتها التصويرية وإتقانها، وكان يُعتقد أنها من صنع الآلهة.
  • يتكون النص الواحد من الكتابة الهيروغليفية، من صور تمثل الكلمات، وصور تمثل الأصوات، ومجموعة من المحددات التي توضع بنهاية الجملة لتوضيح معناها.
  • تم استخدام أكثر من ألف حرف في اللغة الهيروغليفية في البداية، وفي المملكة الوسطى تم تقليلها إلى 750 حرفاً.
  • تقرأ في أعمدة من الأعلى للأسفل، أو في صفوف من اليمين لليسار والعكس صحيح.
  • استُخدمت الفُرَش والحبر في الكتابة الهيروغليفية.

تم تطوير نوعين من الكتابة الهيروغليفية، وهي كما يأتي:

  • الكتابة الهيراطيقية: التي كانت منمقة أكثر وأبسط من الكتابة الهيروغليفية، وكانت تكتب من اليمين لليسار، وتستخدم للأغراض الدينية، وللوثائق العامة، والتجارية، والخاصة.
  • الكتابة الديموطيقية: التي كانت مختصرة بشكل كبير من الصور، واستخدمت في كتابة الوثائق في القرن السابع عشر قبل الميلاد، ولكن لم تستخدم في كتابة النقوش الدينية والجنائزية.

كتابة شعب شانغ

ظهرت كتابة شانغ لأول مرة في الصين، وقد أسسها ملوك سلالة شانغ منذ أكثر من 3000 عام، ولها مجموعة من الخصائص والمميزات، وهي كما يأتي:

  • كان الملوك القدماء يستخدمون لغة تشانغ، في الكتابة على عظام الحيوانات، وذلك للتنبؤ بالمستقبل.
  • تم تسجيل الحسابات عن الكسوف، والأحداث السماوية، والفلك، في لغة شانغ، وكذلك في الرياضيات، والعلوم.
  • يوجد أكثر من 4500 رمز مختلف في لغة شانغ، ولا يزال يستخدم جزء كبير منها في اللغة الصينية الحالية.
  • استطاعت الأحرف الصينية تمثيل مفاهيم، وأصوات اللغة المنطوقة بدرجات متفاوتة.
  • تُعرف هذه الكتابة باسم “نَص عظام أوراكل”؛ لأنها كانت تكتب على عظام أوراكل.

كتابة حضارة المايا

ظهرت كتابة حضارة المايا، في أمريكا الوسطى ما يقارب 900 عام قبل الميلاد، ومن أهم خصائصها ومميزاتها ما يأتي:

  • تُشبه كتابة المايا، الكتابة الهيروغليفية المصرية، ولكنها مختلفة عنها بشكل تام.
  • استُخدمت هذه الكتابة الرموزالرسومية، لتمثيل الكلمات، والأصوات، والأشياء.

  • استُخدم نظام للأرقام برقم أساسي 20 في لغة المايا، ومُثلت الأرقام، في الشَرْطات، والنقاط.
  • استخُدمت الكتابة في حضارة المايا، لتسجيل الذكريات، والنصوص، دون الاعتماد على الخلفية اللغوية، أو النحوية، وكُتبت الكتب، والقصص.

كتابات أخرى

يوجد مجموعة من الكتابات التي تم العثور عليها في أوقات مختلفة، وأبرزها ما يأتي:

  • كتابة حضارة وادي نهر السند: تكونت من الرموز؛ بما يُقارب 26 رمزاً، وتوقع العلماء أن تحتوي على مكونات منطقية، ومقطعية.
  • كتابة حضارة رابا نوي: تكونت من حروف رسومية، والتي تعكس الأشكال البشرية، والحيوانية، والنباتية، وتحتوي على ما لا يقل عن 120 رمزاً.

كيف تطورت الكتابة

مرت الكتابة في تطورات كبيرة على النحو الآتي:

  • الرموز: بدأت الكتابة في كونها مجموعة من الرموز، والرسومات، التي تُمثّل الكلمات والجُمل، وكان يستخدمها أمناء السجلات فقط في البداية، ومع مرور الوقت أصبحت مُنتشرة بين المجموعات الصغيرة والقبائل.
  • الأصوات: مع مرور الوقت أصبحت الكتابة تُمثّل الأصوات أيضًا.
  • الأبجدية اليونانية: تم استبدال الصور والرموز في الأبجدية اليونانية حوالي 400 عام قبل الميلاد، وكان أول نص مكتوب من اليسار لليمين، وتبعها بعد ذلك البيزنطية، والرومانية.
  • الأحرف: جميع أنظمة الكتابة كانت تحتوي على حروف كبيرة فقط في البداية، وعند تنقيح أدوات الكتابة تم استخدام الأحرف الصغيرة.

أدوات الكتابة:

  • في البداية استُخدمت العظام، والعاج، والمعادن، في صناعة الأقلام للكتابة على الحجر، والطين عن طريق النقش.
  • ومع مرور الوقت تم اختراع الحبر لتلوين أسطح الكتابة، واستُخدمت عيدان الخيزران للكتابة بالحبر، وبنفس الوقت تم استخدام أوراق البردي، والبرشمان، للكتابة عليها بدلًا من الطين والحجارة.
  • وأخيرًا تم استخدام ريش الطيور للكتابة بالحبر، وتم تطوير ورق الكتابة من ورق الألياف النباتية.

موضوعات متعلقة:

ما معنى قوله تعالى و مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ

معني اسم ليان في القرآن الكريم

أهم المعلومات عن لائق أ في الجيش

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