مواصفات الأضحية وحكم التبرك بدمها

أضحية العيد

مواصفات الأضحية وحكم التبرك بدمها

الأضحية هي إحدى شعائر الإسلام المشروعة والمجمع عليها، يتقرب بها المسلمون إلى الله، كما فعل إيراهيم عليه السلام من قبلنا، وذلك من أول أيام عيد الأضحى حتى آخر أيام التشريق.

لذا لا يزال البعض يسأل عن أحكامها وصفاتها وشروطها، وهي أسئلة مشروعة وواردة كل عام مع اقتراب أيام العيد، من قبيل التذكر وتعليم الأطفال، لذا نوضح هنا في هذا الموضوع كل ما يتعلق بهذه الأسئلة بشكل مباشر وبسيط.

محتويات المقالة

ما هي صفات الأضحية

  1. أن تكون الأضحية سليمة من العيوب: التي تؤثر في وفرة لحمها وجودته.
  2.  بلغت السن الشرعي.
  3.  سمينة غير هزيلة: أي حسنة وعظيمة تسر الناظر.
  4.  أن تكون الأضحية ملك للمضحي نفسه، كما تصح أضحية الوكيل.
  5. استقبال القبلة بالأضحية حين ذبحها، وبآلة حادة على مكان الذبح بسرعة وقوة.

والدليل: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: “أربع لا يجوز في الأضاحي: العوراء البين عورها، والمريضة البين مرضها، والعرجاء البين ضلعها، والعجفاء التي لا تنقى”.

ما هو حكم الأضحية؟

المتفق عليه من أكثر العلماء أن الأضحية سنة مؤكدة لما روى عن ابن عباس أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: ” ثلاث كتبت على وهن لكم تطوع؛ الوتر، والنحر، وركعتا الفجر”.

ما هي شروط الأضحية 

  1. الشاة: ما اكتمل له ستة أشهر ودخل في السابع
    2. البقر: ما كمل سنتان ودخل في الثالثة.
    3. الإبل: ما كمل 5 سنين ودخل في السادسة.

ما هو وقت ذبح الأضحية

  • الوقت الشرعي لذبح الأضحية: ويبدأ من بعد صلاة العيد في العاشر من ذي الحجة (يوم النحر) وحتى غياب شمس آخر أيام التشريق في الثالث عشر من ذي الحجة.

والدليل: قال صلى الله عليه وسلم: “من صلى صلاتنا، ونسك نسكنا، فقد أصاب النسك، ومن ذبح قبل أن يصلي فليعد مكانها أخرى”.

كيفية توزيع الأضحية

  • على المسلم أن يجمع بين أكل الثلث من أضحيته والصدقة والهدية منها، ثلث آخر للفقراء من جيرانه وأقاربه، ولا يشترط أن تكون القسمة أثلاثا متساوية.

والدليل: قول الحق سبحانه وتعالى: “فكلوا منها وأطعموا القانع والمعتر”.

وقول  ابن عباس في صفة أضحية النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: “ويطعم أهل بيته الثلث، ويطعم فقراء جيرانه الثلث، ويتصدق على السؤال بالثلث”.

ما الذي يجب أن يفعله المضحي قبل الذبح آداب المضحي

وكما يرى جمهور العلماء من المالكية والشافعية أن آداب المضحي تتمثل في عدة ضوابط شرعية ينبغي عليه الالتزام بها.

  • حيث أنه مكروه لمن أراد التضحية، قص الشعر، تقليم الأظافر.
  • وذلك إذا دخل العشر الأوائل من ذي الحجة حتى يضحي، كما روى عن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت: كنت أفتل قلائد هدي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ثم يقلدها بيده، ثم يبعث بها ولا يحرم عليه شيء أحله الله له حتى ينحر الهدي.
  • وعن أم سلمة رضي الله عنها: “إذا دخل العشر – أي العشر الأوائل من ذي الحجة – وأراد أحدكم أن يضحي فلا يأخذ من شعره ولا من أظفاره شيئًا حتى يضحي”.

حكم التبرك بدم الأضحية

  • لم يرد الشرع بالتبرك بدم الأضحية سواء المسفوح منه أم المتبقي في العروق وهو طاهر على عكس الأول, ولكن لا يجوز التبرك بما لم يأت به الشرع.
  • وقال وكيل الأوقاف الأسبق الدكتور سالم عبدالجليل، أننا نتقرب إلى الله بذبح الأضاحى، إحياءاً لسنة أبينا إبراهيم، مؤكداً على أن المسح بدم الأضحية على الجدران والتبرك به يعد من البدع الخاطئة والتى يجب تركها والتخلي عنها.

إقرأ أيضا:

1- حكم صيام يوم مولد النبي 

2- فضل عشر ذي الحجة للأطفال

المصادر:

  1.  شروط ومواصفات الأضحية: الإسلام سؤال وجواب
    2. التبرك بدم الأضحية

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