هل تستحق الموناليزا أن تكون واحدة من أهم اللوحات؟

هل تستحق الموناليزا أن تكون واحدة من أهم اللوحات؟

هل تستحق الموناليزا أن تكون واحدة من أهم اللوحات؟

كان ليوناردو دافنشي موهوبا بشكل فريد، وهو أشهر فنان في حقبة من أعظم حقب الابتكار في مجالات الفنون والعلوم والهندسة، التي شهدها العالم على الإطلاق. وفي القرون التي تلت وفاته تحول هذا الرجل إلى رمز أيقوني للنهضة الإيطالية.

محتويات المقالة

كيف يستمد العمل الفني قيمته؟

يبحث المنتج والكاتب حسام علوان الإجابة على هذا السؤال خلال نقاشه مع صديقه، الفنان التشكيلي، أشرف رسلان، ويحاول في نفس الوقت إيجاد الحل من خلال اطلاعه ومعرفته بهذه الأمور، وقد شغلت هذه الفرضية العديد من الأوساط الفنية والمعرفية للإجابة عنها.

المنتج والكاتب حسام علوان
المنتج والكاتب حسام علوان

 

وينطلق من هنا لطرح الفكرة، فمن أين يستمد العمل الفني قيمته؟ هل هي الأسطورة التي ترتبط بالفنان ذاته – كشئء من سلوكه الشخصي، أو كشئ عارض مثل وفاة مبكرة؟ أو أي شيء آخر يجعل من حياة الفنان بما يظهره كشخص خارق للعادة، أو العكس من فرط بساطة حياته وخلوها من أحداث بما لايليق بفنان؟ أو هي أسطورة مرتبطة بالعمل ذاته؟

سنتعرض هنا في هذه المقالة، ما يتعلق به الأمر بتفسير أكبر، عن سر واحدة من أغلى وأشهر اللوحات التي رسمها دافنشي، كما يقرر حسام علوان أن يكتب عنها من خلال عمل فني تحول لأسطورة.

يحكي حسام علوان الكاتب وهاوي جمع الإنتيكات، في منشور  مفصل وهو جزء من نقاش موصول، كما يوضحه في البداية عن سبب تحول عمل فني ما لأسطورة؟ فما سر الموناليزا، حتى تتحول بعد أن كانت لوحة عادية مثل أي لوحة أخرى معلقة على جدار المتحف، إلى رمز وحديث كل الناس؟ هل هناك شئ غامض مستعصى على الفهم؟

لماذا سرقت لوحة الموناليزا؟

لتتبع الغموض الذي تحمله اللوحة والقصة معا، يجب علينا العودة إلى الوراء قليلا، في أغسطس العام 1911 حيث تعرضت اللوحة للسرقة من داخل متحف اللوفر دون أن يشعر أحد بغيابها، لمدة يوم وأربع ساعات، وهي مدة كبيرة بالنسبة لمتحف بهذا الحجم، بالطبع انتشر الخبر في المتحف ومنه للصحافة الفرنسية حتى أصبح الخبر الذي يتابعه العالم، ويهتم بمعرفة الملابسات، فى محاولة للكشف عن غموض السرقة، مع تطور القضية التي انشغل بها 60 محقق.

ادعى فينسينسو بيروجيا العامل بمتحف اللوفر والذي تم الفبض عليه أثناء محاولته لبيعها في فلورنسا  أنه سرقها بدافع الوطنية وأنها تنتمي إلى إيطاليا،

ولكن ما ورد ورجحه البعض أن صديق فينسينسور الذي كان يعمل على بيع نسخ من الموناليزا أقنعه أنه في حال سرقتها سيرتفع سعر النسخة وما لبث أن سرقها واختبأ لمدة عامين ثم حاول بيعها.

لماذا هذه اللوحة بالذات؟

انشغل العالم بهذا السؤال أكثر من أي شئ آخر، فلماذا وقع الاختيار على هذه اللوحة دون غيرها، كان له أن يسرق غيرها، عندما أتيحت له الفرصة، يعني هذا أن في الأمر سر!

وبعد إغلاق المتحف لمدة أسبوع بهدف التحقيق، حصل ما لم يتوقعه أحد، حيث توافد الجمهور بكثرة لمشاهدة عمل فني من نوع خاص، وهو مكان اللوحة الفارغ، والذي كان عبارة عن مكون من أربع مسامير على الحائط، وعرفت هذه البقعة ببقعة العار، وكذلك عرفت القاعة كلها.

هل نالت الشهرة لهذا السبب؟ هل من الأفضل للفنان نشر أعماله أم تركها تختفي للأبد فتتحول لأسطورة؟ هذا بالضبط ما كان يجول فى خاطر كافكا، حيث تصادف وجوده هناك في هذا الوقت!

28 ساعة قبل العثور على اللوحة

عمل المحقيقين وفريق البحث على وضع كل الاحتمالات الممكنة عملا بنظرية أن كل الفرضيات محتملة، وأصبح الكل مشتبها به بالفعل، على خلفية تتصاعد حدتها من الخلافات والجنون قبل الحرب العالمية الأولى، فوجهت فرنسا اتهاما لقيصر ألمانيا، على أنه من دبر عملية السرقة.

من السارق الذي صنع أسطورة الموناليزا؟

بعد أن وصل الخبر إلى إيطاليا، مع وصول فينتشينزو بيروجيا، وهو سارق اللوحة، الذي قرر أن يعيدها إلى موطنها الأصلي، باعتبارها عمل فني ينتمي إلى بلده، إيطاليا.

حرص بيروجيا على اختفاء اللوحة لمدة سنتين ونصف، حتى هدأت الأمور، بعدها أخرج اللوحة، ورأى أن يذهب بها إلى تاجر لوحات في فرنسا، وانتهى من هنا كل شئ تقريبا.

حيث أراد التاجر أن يتأكد من أنها اللوحة الأصلية المسروقة، وقد طلب مساعدة خبير للتحقق منها، بعد الفحص ولم يكن عليها أي شئ باستثناء ختم اللوفر، هدد الخبير أن يبلغ البوليس باعتبار أن الاتجار في المسروقات جريمة، وقد يحصل على مكافأة أيضا، مما جعل التاجر ينسحب من إتمام هذه الصفقة.

أين اختفت اللوحة الأصلية؟

لكن يظل السؤال يطرح نفسه، عن الذي حصل بالفعل خلال فترة اختفاء اللوحة؟ وهل عاد العمل الأصلي حقا إلى المتحف أم أنها مجرد لوحة مستنسخة بدقة من العمل الأصلي؟، وحتى ختم اللوفر لا أظنه بعيدًا عن التزوير هو الآخر، خصوصا، وأن اللوحة ظهرت مرة أخرى في الستينات، في بيت تاجر اللوحات، هنري بوليتيزر، وزعم بأنه المالك الأصلي للوحة!

مقارنة بين اللوحتين اللتين عرضتهما مؤسسة الموناليزا

فعجز الوسائل التقنية في هذه الفترة هو ما حال دون معرفة اللوحة خاصة مع ظهورها عام 2012 في سويسرا مع زعيم المنظمة السرية، واسمها “منظمة الموناليزا”. ومن وقتها لا يزال البحث جاريا للتحقق من أي العملين أصلي وأيهما لاحق؟

 

 

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