حقوق السمك في ألمانيا

حقوق السمك في ألمانيا

تتجه الدول طبقا لقانون الصيد إلى فرض التشريعات أو الأكواد التي تلزم الأفراد بتنظيم حق مطاردة أو قتل أنواع معينة من الأسماك أو الحيوانات البرية، لتقليل منحى الخطر عن البيئة والثروات الطبيعية من ناحية، ومن ناحية أخرى لتقنين حصص التجارة الداخلية والخارجية، فما هي طبيعة نشاط صيد الأسماك في ألمانيا؟

محتويات المقالة

وجهات صيد الأسماك في ألمانيا

  • يوجد في ألمانيا العديد من مناطق الصيد المختلفة: وبشكل كبير في الينابيع والأنهار الجبلية التي تحتوي على السلمون بأنواعه، مثل التروتة أو السلمون المرقط، وهو الإسم الشائع لعدد من أنواع الأسماك التي تعيش في المياه العذبة.
  • دول البلطيق: في شمال البلاد حيث ينتشر صيد سمك القد في أعماق البحار.
  • البحيرات: وتقع على البحيرة العديد من المدن الرئيسية، مثل برلين التي تعد من أكثر الأماكن المحاطة بالأنهار والبحيرات، والكهوف المفتوحة.

ويُسمح بالصيد في جميع أنحاء ألمانيا، ومع ذلك يلزم أولا الحصول على الرخص والتصاريح الخاصة بعمليات الصيد، والتي يتم تنظيمها ومراقبتها من قبل جمعيات الصيد الإقليمية.

فكل ولاية فيدرالية لديها برامج مدعومة من جمعيات الصيد الحكومية، وتختلف اللوائح بين الولايات، لكن أحد اللوائح المشتركة تقريبا لجميعها، هو الحاجة إلى اجتياز امتحان الصيد قبل الخروج للمرة الأولى.

قوانين الصيد في ألمانيا

اصطياد الأسماك في ألمانيا

  • لا بد لكل راغب بالإصطياد من امتلاك رخصة صيد، وفي ألمانيا يتم إجراء هذه الاختبارات (Sportfisherprüfung) عادة مرة أو مرتين في السنة حسب الولاية الفيدرالية.
  • ويشارك الصيادون حول العالم للحصول على رخصة الصيد، حيث تثبت لحاملها الحماية والاحتراف، وتمنحه العديد من الصلاحيات الأخرى.
  • رخصة الصيد: وهي عبارة عن بطاقة يمتلكها الصيادون فقط بموجب امتحان الصيادين، إذ لا بد أولا من اجتياز بعض الاختبارات التطبيقية.

كيف تحصل على رخصة صيد سمك في ألمانيا

متطلبات الصيد في ألمانيا – حقوق السمك
  • حضور الكورس التعليمي الخاص بتعلم قوانين الصيد: و هذا ما يوجب عليه الشخص بعد إملاء النموذج الخاص وتقديمه إلى نادي الصيد.
  • الحصول على جدول الدروس والامتحانات: وعادة ما تعقد المحاضرات على مدار 4 إلى 5 عطلات في نهاية الأسبوع، ولمدة 40 ساعة قبل الإمتحان.
  • اجتياز الامتحان النهائي: بشقيه النظري والعملي، ويشمل القسم النظري معرفة كل ما يتعلق بالصيد من ناحية المعلومات المختلفة عن الحياة البحرية، مثل:
  • أنواع الأسماك وموائلها.
  • أنواع معدات الصيد: ومعرفة الوسائل المستخدمة و طرق الاصطياد.
  • كيفية التعامل مع الأسماك التي يتم إصطيادها في الأماكن المختلفة من المياه وتشمل (البحيرات، والأنهار، والبحار).
    لمحة عن التشريعات ذات الصلة بشأن حماية الأسماك والحيوان والطبيعة.
  • ومن بعدها يحصل المتقدم على النتيجة في نفس اليوم، لإنجاز الإمتحان العملي الذي يلي هذه المرحلة، وعند الانتهاء يحصل على وثيقة أو شهادة مرور يمكن استبدالها في قاعة المدنية المحلية (البلدية) بالرخصة الرسمية.
  • حيث أن شهادة النجاح تعتبر صالحة مدى الحياة، لكن رخصة الصيد الفعلية صالحة لمدة سنة أو خمس سنوات، ويمكن تجديدها.

هل يسمح باصطياد السمك دون رخصة؟

رخصية صيد سمك لمواطن ألماني
  • الإصطياد بدون رخصة هو عمل مخالف للقانون بإسم الصيد غير القانوني.
  • وطبقا لقانون المخالفات في مقاطعة بادن فورتنبيرغ، بألمانيا، فإن القانون ينص على أن الشخص الذي يصطاد وفق مخالفة قانون ممارسة الصيد، ينفذ في حقه عقوبة السجن حتى سنتين أو يخالف بعقوبة مالية.
  • وبالتالي في هذه الحالة، تستوجب العقوبة المالية أو السجن ما يتعلق بحجم المخالفة المرتكبة، ومدى تكرارها، وفي حال كانت تلك المرة الأولى قد يكون هناك فقط غرامة تأخير.

العقوبة المالية: تتراوح قيمتها بين الـ 120 و حتى 1000 يورو. وقد تنتهي القضية إما بالتحذير، أو الحرمان بشكل نهائي من حق استخراج رخصة الصيد.

التراخيص السياحية المؤقتة للصيد

  • يمكن كذلك للسياح والزوار التقدم بطلب الحصول على رخصة الصيد، ويتم الحصول على هذ التصريح من أحد محلات أو نوادي الصيد المعتمدة، ومعلوم أنه يجب ترتيب ذلك قبل السفر، مع الجهات المختصة.
  • وقد تكون هذه العملية مشابهة تماما لنفس الإجراءات المطبقة على السكان المحليين، لكن الترخيص في هذه الحالة يصدر مباشرة عند الانتهاء من الاختبار، حيث يكون صالحا لفترة زمنية محددة، قد تمتد إلى أسبوع أو أسبوعين أو شهر فقط.
  • وفي الآونة الأخيرة، نظرًا للعدد الكبير من السياح الراغبين في صيد الأسماك، فقد ألغت العديد من الولايات الفيدرالية متطلبات الترخيص تماما، كونها تؤثر سلبا على اقتصاد الوطن.

العقوبات: وتطبق العقوبات من قبل السلطات المعنية، مثل الشرطة البحرية أو مسؤولو إدارة الغابات وما إلى ذلك على الأشخاص المخالفين، أنواع مختلفة من الغرامات بتهمة انتهاك أكثر من قانون مثل (حماية البيئة، والسرقة، وإساءة معاملة الحيوان، وغيرها).

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