الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله وعلى آله وصحبه أما بعد: فإن هذا المقطع من القرآن الكريم جزء من الآية الثالثة من سورة النساء، وهي قوله تعالى ( وإن خفتم ألا تقسطوا في اليتامى فانكحوا ما طاب لكم من النساء مثنى وثلاث ورباع فإن خفتم ألا تعدلوا فواحدة أو ما ملكت أيمانكم ذلك أدنى ألا تعولوا ) [النساء: 3] في هذا المقال عبر موقع معلومة لك سنتعرف على ما تفسير قوله تعالى “مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۖ “
ما معنى “مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۖ “
ومعنى ملكت أيمانكم: إماؤكم، وهن الرقيقات المملوكات للرجل فيجوز له أن يطأهن بملك اليمين دون عقد ولا مهر ولا شهود ولا ولي… إذا لم يوجد مانع شرعي من التحريم بالرضاعة أو النسب.
قال ابن عطية:
- (وما ملكت أيمانكم) يريد الإماء، والمعنى: إن خاف الرجل ألا يعدل في عِشْرة واحدة فما ملكت يمينه.
- وإسناد الملك لليمين وهي اليد اليمنى، وذلك لشرفها وتمكنها وخصوصيتها بالمحاسن.
- وقد انتهى ملك اليمين في هذا العصر فلا يوجد عبيد ولا أرقاء.
- ولا يعني هذا إلغاء أحكام الرق، إذا وجدت أسبابه وانتفت موانعه.
- الأصل في الآدميين الحرية فإن الله تعالى خلق آدم وذريته أحراراً، وإنما الرق لعارض.
- فإذا لم يعلم العارض، فله حكم الأصل، ولا يجوز لأحد أن يسترق نفسه لغيره، ولو رضي بذلك.
- لأن الحرية حق لله تعالى، هذا ما اتفق عليه أهل العلم .
- وعليه، فلا يجوز للمرأة أن تهب نفسها لرجل كأنها ملك يمينه.
- ولكن لا مانع من أن تتنازل له عن بعض حقوقها الشخصية الأخرى أو كلها.
- كأن تقبل الزواج منه، مع التنازل عن حقها في النفقة أو السكن.
- وأما تحريم ما أحل الله تعالى أو تحليل ما حرم فهذا من أكبر الكبائر.
وأعظم الذنوب، فالتحريم والتحليل من حق الخالق سبحانه وتعالى، قال تعالى:
- ( ألا له الخلق والأمر تبارك الله رب العالمين )
- ( ولا تقولوا لما تصف ألسنتكم الكذب هذا حلال وهذا حرام لتفتروا على الله الكذب إن الذين يفترون على الله الكذب لا يفلحون* متاع قليل ولهم عذاب أليم)
- والذي يسن القوانين لتحريم تعدد الزوجات آثم إثماً عظيماً لمخالفته كتاب الله وسنة رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم.
حقوق ملك اليمين
- أمرت الشريعة الإسلامية بالإحسان إليهن، وعدم تكليفهن بما لا يطقن من الأعمال.
- وأن يلبسهن الإنسان مما يلبس، وأن يطعمهن مما يطعم.
-  كما رغبت الشريعة الإسلامية في عتق الرقاب وجعلته سببا للنجاة من النار.
- ونهى النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام عن سوء مخاطبة الرقيق بأن يقول الرجل فتاي وفتاتي بدلاً من قوله عبدي وأمتي.
- كما نهت الشريعة عن ظلم الرقيق وجعلت ظلمهم أحياناً سبباً في عتقهم.
الإسلام وتحرير الرقيق
- جاءت الشريعة الإسلامية لتجفف منابع الرق وأسبابه إلى أبعد الحدود.
- فاعتبرت الشريعة الإسلامية تحرير الرق من أفضل القربات إلى الله.
- كما رتبت على كثير من الأعمال كفارة عتق الرقاب.
- وكان مقصد الشريعة الأساس من ذلك تحرير العبيد حتّى تظل القاعدة العامة التي نطق بها عمر رضي الله عنه نورا ونبراسا للبشرية حينما قال: (متى استعبدتم الناس وقد ولدتهم أمهاتهم أحرارًا).
- أفضل دعاء لإبعاد شخص معين عني بالقرآن مكتوب
- دعاء عن النبي لصرف شخص شرير عنك
- قراءة سورة الضحى 40 مرة للزواج
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