ما هو مرض السيدا؟

الشريط الأحمر للتضامن مع الأشخاص حاملى فيروس الإيدز

ما هو مرض السيدا؟

مرض الإيدز أو السيدا، ويسمى أيضا متلازمة نقص المناعة المكتسب، يسببه فيروس الـ (HIV) الذي يهاجم الجهاز المناعي في الجسم، وفي هذه المقالة سوف نناقش بعض الأسئلة الشائعة حول طبيعة المرض، وما هي الطرق التي ينتقل من خلالها.

محتويات المقالة

ماذا يهاجم فيروس الإيدز في جسم الإنسان؟

يهاجم فيروس الإيدز او السيدا  خلايا الجهاز المناعي، وهي خط الدفاع الأول التي تقوم بحماية الجسم ضد الأجسام الغريبة من الفطريات والفيروسات، حيث يدخل الفيروس إلى مجرى الدم ثم بعد ذلك يخترق الخلايا ويستخدمها للتكاثر.

Symptoms_of_AIDS-ar.svg
الأعراض الرئيسية لمرض الإيدز

كيف يصاب الإنسان بمرض الإيدز؟

ويوجد فيروس نقص المناعة البشرية في السوائل الجسدية للشخص المصاب، وينتقل عن طريق:

  1. الدم: أو منتجات الدم التي لم تختبر أو خضعت لإجراءات الفحص، كما أنه ينتشر كذلك بين متعاطي المخدرات وهي إمكانية محتملة تزيد خطورتها من خلال الاستعمال المشترك والمتكرر لأدوات التعاطي، مثل الإبر والشفرة.
  2. المني والسوائل المهبلية: ويمكن أن ينتقل الفيروس كذلك عن طريق الاتصال الجنسي غير الآمن، وهي الطريقة الأكثر انتشارا في العالم. وخطر الإصابة هنا قائم حتى على نتيحة الإتصال الجنسي لمرة واحدة فقط.
  3. حليب الأم: في حالة كانت الأم مصابة بالفيروس، فيمكن أن ينتقل إلى الجنين أثناء الحمل، وإلى الطفل خلال الولادة أو بعد ذلك في مرحلة الرضاعة الطبيعية.

تاريخ مرض الإيدز 

  • يرجع تاريخ اكتشاف مرض الإيدز أو مرض السيدا كما يسمية البعض، إلى العام ١٩٨١، حيث بدأ انتشاره في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية.
  • وفي هذه الفترة، التي انتشر فيها مرض السيدا، كافحت مراكز السيطرة على الأمراض لتتبع مصدر العدوى وكيفية تحورها جينيا وانتشارها، وكان صاحب بداية عدوى مرض الإيدز رجل كندي من أصل فرنسي.
  • عاد علماء الأحياء للمتابعة، لكن من اتجاه آخر عن طريق واحدة من المبادئ الأساسية التي ارتكزت عليها نظرية داروين، وهو أن جميع الكائنات الحية مرتبطة ببعضها، وتنحدر من أصل واحد. ومن هنا بدأ جمع أعداد كبيرة من عينات الدم لمصابين بالفيروس في أمريكا، تتضمن تحليل جيني لكل مريض و نوع من الفيروس، ثم تم بناء شجرة تطورية داروينية، تربط بين أنواع الفيروسات المختلفة التي عثروا عليها، وملاحظة الاختلافات الجينية ثم مقارنتها بمعدل الطفرات المتوقع.
  • أدى توسع نطاق البحث من قبل العلماء عن الفيروس في البشر والحيوانات على مستوى العالم، الوصول إلى سلالات مختلفة، شملت عينات محفوظة لأناس حاملين للإصابة قد ماتوا بطرق غريبة من سنة (1959 و 1960) وبمجرد انتهاء الشجرة لهذه الأنواع وصلت الحلقة المفقودة.
  • حيث وجدت د. بياتريس هان أثناء دراستها لعينة من براز الشمبانزي فى وسط أفريقيا، سلالة غريبة من الفيروس في الشمبانزي تشبه سلالة بشرية فى أفريقيا أيضا، وبهذا الشكل استطاعت إنجاز الحلقة التي تقول أن المرض بدأ مبكرا في العام ١٩٠٠ تقريبا. وأكملت أن أصل الإصابة يعود إلى رجل صياد في الكاميرون جرح نفسه أثناء مطاردته لشمبانزي مصاب.

هل هناك أمل في علاج الإيدز؟

  • بالطبع تتراجع معدلات الإصابة الجديدة بالفيروس والوفيات المتربطة به، وبشكل كبير جدا عن السابق، فقد تمكن العالم نسبيا من وقف انتشار المرض.
  • وتتجه الأنظار الآن نحو خطوة أخرى في القضاء على وباء الإيدز بحلول عام 2030. وهو جزأ لا يتجزأ من أهداف التنمية المستدامة التي اعتمدتها الدول الأعضاء في الأمم المتحدة عام 2015.

هل يمكن الزواج من شخص مصاب بالايدز؟

  • لا يوجد ما يمنع الزواج من مريض الإيدز ولا حتى بشكل قانوني، لكن يوجد ما يحافظ على سلامة الأفراد في اتباع الإجراءات الوقائية في التعامل مع المصاب، كما أن الفيروس لم يعد كما السابق في حدته وخطورته.
  • ويحتفل المجتمع الدولي في شهر ديسمبر من كل عام باليوم العالمي للقضاء على التمييز ضد المصابين، كحركة عالمية للتضامن.

إقرأ أيضا:

المصادر:
الأمم المتحدة قضايا عالمية: مرض الإيدز

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    يونيو 22, 2024 at 8:11 ص

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